answers to these 2 questions for my reasoning and argumentation course.

Put the following arguments in standard form, symbolize them, and test them for validity. All the questions contain arguments, however, there may (or may not) be a missing premise or conclusion. Hint: you will need to work back and forth between symbolizing what seems to be said, and standard argument forms. This will require judgements about how to symbolize any sentence. But if you end up with more than 5 active symbols (and most arguments have fewer) you need to think more about how you are translating the passage. Hints: You need to watch for indicator words that suggest premises, conclusions, conditionals, disjunctions, conjunctions, etc. You will need to work back and forth between symbolizing what seems to be said, and standard argument forms. This will require judgements about how to symbolize any sentence. Be sure when symbolizing that you use complete sentences—an argument must be made up of complete propositions, not sentence fragments. You need to draw truth tables or show a proof. If you end up with more than 5 active symbols (and most arguments have fewer) you need to think more about how you are translating Proper standardization: 1.5 Symbolizing: 1 Test for validity: 1.5 Proving that the argument is valid or invalid: 1 Half points will be assigned. Question 1: God is omnipotent, omniscient, and morally perfect. If God is morally perfect, then if it is impossible to secure a great good without permitting an evil, God will not desire to eliminate that evil. That we have free will is a great good. But it is impossible to secure the existence of free will in us without permitting evil to exist. Therefore, if it is impossible to secure a great good without permitting an evil, God will not desire to eliminate that evil. And this is impossible. So God does not desire to eliminate all evil. Question 2: Human beings are not equal—within a limited range we differ in strength, intelligence, and desires. If we seek some characteristic that all humans possess, it will have to be some lowest common denominator, pitched so low that no human being lacks it. The catch is that any such characteristic, possessed by all human beings, will not be possessed only by human beings. If there is no morally relevant characteristic difference between humans and some non-human animals, then if all humans have moral status, so do some non-human animals.

 

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